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TABLE 3
Distribution of Countries According to Proportion of GNP Spent on Public Education, 1955 and around 1965, by Continents3
(number of countries)
Percent of GNP	Asia		Latin America"			Africa13	
Education	1955	1965	1955	1960	1965	1960	1965
1 or less	3	_	1	_	_	1	_
1.1 to 2	9	5	5	7	2	5	2
2.1 to 3	3	5	5	6	4	5	4
3.1 to 4	-	2	2	4	7	4	4
4.1 to 5	-	3	-	2	5	4	4
5.1 to 6	-	-	-	-	3	1	3
6.1 to 7	-	-	1	1	-	-	1
7.1 or more	-	-	-	2	1	-	2
Total countries	15	15	14	22	22	20	20
aFor some countries data for 1955, 1960, or 1965 were not available, and figures for the preceding or subsequent year have been used. For some countries percentages are related to gross domestic product instead of gross national product.
''Percentages for Sierra Leone in 1960, Nigeria in 1965, Paraguay in 1960, and Nicaragua in 1965 were calculated by applying the expenditure figures in the UNESCO Statistical Yearbook (2) to gross domestic product figures from the United Nations Yearbook of National Accounts Statistics (15). A further adjustment was made to the Nigerian data to allow for expenditure on the third level of education, which was not included in the UNESCO figure.
Sources: (2, Table 2.16; 5, Table 15).
The wealthy countries obviously spend much more on education per head of population than the poor countries. But is it easier for them to devote a greater share of the national income to education? Apparently so; an analysis of the relationship between per capita GNP and the percentage of the national income devoted to public expenditure on education in all countries with available data indicates a strong positive relationship.* However, as shown in Figure 2, there is no relationship at all if we consider only those countries with per capita GNP between $700J The share of educational expenditures in the national incomes of the poorest countries (those with per capita incomes below $250) range very widely indeed-frorn 1.5 percent to 8.5 percent. Coupled with the evidence of an upward shift over time in the share of educational expenditures in most countries, these figures indicate that in no sense can low income be considered an immovable barrier to the channel-
*In terms of a simple regression analysis, the relationship can be expressed as follows: y = .00135* + 3.48692. F(l,88) = 32.3, significant at 0.001 level. tf (1,60) = 0.02, not significant at 0.05 level.ore of their GNP on education, if foreign aid is included. Some African and Latin American countries are devoting more than a fifth of the national budget to education, and although the Asian countries as a group cannot match this record, Singapore has been spending even more: 23.5 to 30 percent of the national budget in recent years.